The external environmental factors of poultry production play an important role in poultry health, production performance and disease control. How to improve the efficiency of poultry breeding from the selection of poultry breeds, breeding methods and other scientific breeding?
1 Introduction and selection requirements of poultry species
Many practitioners lack the necessary knowledge about the introduction and selection of poultry, and pursue unconventionalism, which adds uncertain factors. In order to promote the introduction of breeds and better serve the development of animal husbandry, the principles for the introduction of poultry breeds are now as follows:
(1) Can adapt to the local production environment. When introducing the species, the breeding methods, climate and environmental conditions of the production area should be analyzed and compared with the introduced breeding areas. At the same time, the adaptability of the species under different environmental conditions should be investigated. The selected species has strong birth vitality, high survival rate, and suitable Good varieties raised locally. In the process of introduction, it is necessary to consider the production performance of the variety, but also whether the environmental conditions are very different from the place of origin or whether it can provide suitable environmental conditions for the introduced varieties. For example, whether the introduction from the south in the south can adapt to the hot and humid climate, and whether the introduction from the south in the north can survive the winter safely.
(2) is consistent with the production purpose. Determine the production purpose of local poultry farming according to market demand, and the production performance characteristics of the introduced species must be consistent with the production purpose and the consumption habits of poultry products in the production area.
(3) High and stable production performance. According to different production purposes, selective introduction of highly productive and stable varieties, and correct comparison of the production characteristics of each variety. For example, from the perspective of meat poultry production, it is necessary to consider its growth rate, increase the age and weight of slaughter, increase the efficiency of meat poultry production as high as possible, and also consider its egg production to reduce the unit production cost of young poultry. In some cases, , Meat quality should also be considered, and various traits should be stable and uniform.
二 The all-in all-out breeding method
All-in, all-out breeding technology is an important measure to effectively control poultry diseases and improve the production efficiency of the poultry industry. The so-called “all-in and all-out” means that only the same batch of chicks are in the same range, the chickens of the same age are raised, and all of them are out at the same time. Thoroughly cleaned, cleaned, and disinfected after playing to cut off the source of circulating infection. After disinfection, it is sealed for 1 week, and then the next batch of chicks are raised. The biggest advantage of this feeding system is that it is easy to manage and easy to control the disease. Because the whole house (or the whole farm) are poultry of the same age, temperature control, diet replacement, immunization, etc. are extremely convenient, and it is convenient to clean, clean, and disinfect thoroughly after leaving the house to cut off the circulating infection of the source of disease and ensure the flock Healthy and productive. Modern broiler production requires the adoption of an “all-in, all-out” feeding system. It is a fundamental measure to ensure the health of chickens and eradicate pathogens. Compared with the “partial-in-all-out” system, it has low feed consumption, high weight gain and low mortality.
“All in and all out” is divided into three levels: one is “all in and all out” in a chicken house; the second is “all in and all out” within an area of a breeder or broiler farm; the third is the whole The broiler farm implements “all in, all out”. It is easy to achieve “all in and all out” in a chicken house, and it is not difficult to “all in and all out” for a breeder or a section of a broiler farm, but it is very difficult to achieve “all in and all out” in a single farm , Especially for large-scale broiler farms, it must be divided into districts when designing, so that “all in and all out” shall be taken as the unit of the district.
In order to ensure “all-out”, some slow-growing chickens should be raised separately and given special care so that they can be played at the same time.
The scientific breeding model has the characteristics of “high input, high output, high return, and low risk”, which can prevent the spread of diseases and help farmers reduce breeding risks, which represents the development direction of the modern breeding industry. It has very positive significance for improving the quality of poultry products, smoothly crossing the “green barriers” of exports, and solving China’s “three rural” problems by expanding employment and increasing income.